Skin resurfacing and rejuvenating procedures have been increasing rapidly over the last decade and have even sparked advances in skin resurfacing which promotes healing faster and more advanced. This is a new way of promoting faster healing along with minimal downtime and lesser side effects for the patients. Several technological and procedural skin resurfacing developments are being integrated into clinical practices allowing clinicians practices today to treat a broader range of patients’ skin and pathologies than in years past with noteworthy outcomes.
Ablative laser resurfacing
Getting into the history of laser technology, started in the early 1960s and became more popular in recent years, where this technology began with improving facial wrinkles, scars, skin growth and blemished. The laser-based tissue destruction is comprised of the laser wavelength, chromophore targeting, energy density, and laser pulse duration where the parameters get optimized and the appropriate energy is delivered for targeting the laser resurfacing with minimal collateral tissue damage. In the 1980s, the continuous wave of CO2 laser has been taken and been more available for more esthetic resurfacing, but it resulted in mixed outcomes that included many side effects. Early CO2 resurfacing lasers have generated a high number of depigmentation, scarring, erythema and more skin eruptions and infections. But then later the whole turmoil turned and came the erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er: YAG) which was the other name for precision, which helped in achieving the desired wavelength and rejuvenation.
Laser and topical drug application
Topical drug application has significant advantages over systemic therapy in treating skin diseases due to the ability to directly target the affected part of the skin where it also reduced the side effects, toxicities and drug degradation that are commonly seen with the hepatic metabolism and systemic drug reaction. Despite the advantages of topical medication, the skin’s barrier function still limits the application of most medications. With the kinetics of the topical drug delivery system, the diffusion of the drug penetrates the skin through two routes that are trans epidermal and tranappendaageal for sweat glands and hair follicles.
Platelet-rich plasma has been utilized within orthopaedics for several years due to its ability to aid bone, ligament and tendon healing but currently, it has been used in dermatology. The healing properties of this technology have been attributed to the increased concentrations of autologous growth and secretary proteins that enhance the proliferation, and differentiation of the skin cells that are involved in the enhanced healing. The preparation of the PRP begins by harvesting the recipient’s whole blood, using the citrate to inhibit the clotting of the cascade following the centrifugation which concentrated growth factors from the platelet granules. In the last decade, the PRP has been employed in the treatment of skin graft sites, burns and hair loss.
Laser radiofrequency resurfacing
Radiofrequency technology has been growing in the use through the last decade and has recently been combined with laser ablation. Radiofrequency has become popular for its effectiveness in reducing skin laxity by sparing the epidermis through a traditional lower temperature laser method that can be solely used in the dermis and the electromagnetic energy to oscillate from the charged particles within the target tissue zone to generate the heat. This heat production results in the skin tightening within the dermal tissue from the immediate denaturation and contraction of the collagen fibres. With this advanced technology, radiofrequency systems have emerged from the original unipolar and bipolar devices. They are phase controlled which helps in treating acne scars, keloids, rosacea, and inflammatory acne. As there is no chromophore dependence with the radiofrequency, melanin absorption is not an issue generally.
An emerging method that utilizes the state matter known as plasma to create a thermal effect on the skin tissue. This would then lead to the positively ionized gasses in the skin plasma that would come in contact with the resurfacing target, the positive ions capture back electrons while the energy is released. With the PSR, a gaseous nitrogen source is used to form a plasma that releases thermal energy that eliminates the oxygen from the targeted skin surfaces.
This is also known as skin needling or percutaneous collagen induction therapy, for skin resurfacing that involves the use of fine needles to create micro dermal wounds. These controlled micro skin injuries stimulate the remodeling of the existing collagen and promote the formation of new collagen, and elastin and help in vascularization in the papillary dermis, which results in the reduction in the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and scarring.
Crystal free microdermabrasion
This is inception which helps in skin resurfacing and rejuvenation. This modality effectively exfoliates the outer layers of the epidermis using the propulsion of a mechanical medium such as aluminum oxide microcrystals, and skin through a handpiece. This helps in skin rejuvenation and the removal of fine lines.
These are some of the methods of skin rejuvenation and collagen enhancement techniques, it’s always better to consult a dermatologist and then take the action on the skin.